More than five years after the onset of the global financial and economic crisis, tackling unemployment is at the top of our priorities. In the European Union, approximately 4 million jobs are needed to return to pre-crisis employment levels. Groups such as youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities, and the disabled face particularly high risks of being marginalised in the labour market. Policies should leave no stone unturned in delivering a response, and one of the under-explored avenues is action for entrepreneurship and selfemployment, targeted at disadvantaged and under-represented groups. We need a better understanding of the potential for people to set up in business when they are not in the mainstream of the economy and the barriers they face. For example, there were some 8 million seniors in self-employment in the European Union in 2011, more than one-fifth of all those 55-64 year olds who remain active. But while there were approximately 21 million self-employed men, there were only 9 million self-employed women, suggesting that there are some important gender gaps to fill. Why are some social groups less involved in entrepreneurship than others? What problems can and should policy address? What policy actions are working well, and what are the conditions for their success?